[인터뷰] 산업폐수 해양투기 연장문제
서울특별시가 운영하는 영어 라디오 채널 tbs eFM 의 시사 프로그램 『This Morning』에서의 영어인터뷰. 주제는 산업폐기물 해양투기. 인터뷰 일시는 2014년 1월 9일 목요일 오전 7시 40분 생방송으로 진행.
* 아래 인터뷰 준비자료를 붙입니다. (인터뷰 시간이 짧아서인지, 답변이 길어서인지 한두 꼭지는 지나가 버렸습니다. ^^)
Topic: Dumping trash into ocean brings disgrace to Korea
Guest: Choi Ye-yong, the director at Asian citizen's center for environment and health and the vice chair of ocean committee at Korean Federation for Environment Movement
Time: Thursday, 0109, 7:40AM
While environmental organizations have been persuading industrial companies to stop dumping trash into the ocean, the government will start banning dumping industrial waste in ocean in 2016. Choi Ye-yong(최예용), the chief manager at Asian citizen's center for environment and health, joins us on the line.
Question; For those of us who are unfamiliar with this environmental issue, please tell us about the current situation. (현재 상황)
Yeyong: Since in the middle of 1980es, government has allowed land based wastes to do ocean dumping. The types of wastes are not solid wastes but organic ones such as industrial waste water, sludge from the waste water treatment facilities, human waste and food waste and so on. The reason of allowance of waste ocean dumping was the leachate problem. Leachate is the water leaked from the waste landfill facility which is seriously contaminated and bad smell. So residents around the landfill facilities blocked the waste transporting trucks not to come into the facility and it became a big serious social issue in Seoul and other satellite cities. Problem was that the amount of waste ocean dumping had increased annually and rapidly so finally reached almost 10 million tons in 2005. The dumping sites in seas are designated 3 zones, one in Yellow sea and two in East Sea. In 2005, KBS TV showed a disgusting scene which was some hairs on red crabs caught at the zone of the dumping site in East sea. This hair was from the pig waste.
People who saw this scene were shocked and ocean dumping issue became a hot social issue immediately. Environmental groups and seamen erupted and finally government promised to reduce the amount of ocean dumping 1 million tons every year. The promise has been kept in general last 8 years. And finally LEE Myungbak administration announced to stop ocean dumping by the end of 2013.
1980년대 중반부터 한국에서는 각종 육상기인 폐기물의 해양투기를 허용해왔다. 폐기물의 종류는 고체형 폐기물은 아니고 주로 유기성으로 산업폐수, 하수처리장오니, 인분, 음식폐기물 등이었다. 이유는 매립장의 침출수오염문제가 심각해지면서 매립장에 폐기물차량이 반입하지 못하도록 하는 사태가 발생하면서 해양투기가 허용됐다. 문제는 이후 해양투기 폐기량이 지속적으로 증가해 2005년에는 무려 1천만톤에 육박했다. 투기장은 서해 1곳, 동해 2곳으로 지정되어 있다. 2005년에 동해에서 잡힌 홍게에서 돼지털 등 혐오스러운 폐기물찌꺼기가 걸려나온 현장이 방송에 소개되면서 큰 파장이 있었다. 환경단체와 어민들이 들고 일어났고 정부는 매년 100만톤씩 줄여나가겠다고 약속했다. 지난 8년간 대체적으로 약속이 지켜졌다. 지난 이명박정부때 2013년말까지 모두 해양투기를 중단한다고 약속했다.
Qestion; The government originally planned to complete ban on dumping trash starting from 2014, but the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries currently has extended dumping permission for two years which is causing a stir.
What do you think about this? What was the reason from the government for this implementation?
(2014년부터 해양투기를 단계적으로 금지할 계획이었으나..2년간 한시적 배출허용을 한 이유는?)
Yeyong ; When LEE Myungbak administration prepared the policy to finish ocean dumping in 2013, industries asked to allow exceptions in case of technically impossible to treat the waste in land. And the demand was accepted for 2 years exceptional allowance. The exception is only for technical case not for economic case. However there is no industrial waste water technically impossible to treat in land. Korea is the only country doing the ocean dumping in the world. Many underdeveloped countries even treat the industrial waste water in land. If individual factories do not have their own waste water treatment facilities, then they can ask to treat their waste water at the commercial waste water treatment facility. Problem is not the technique of the waste treatment but matter of money.
2007년 이후 준설토가 아닌 육상유기성폐기물을 바다에 버리는 나라는 세계에서 한국이 유일하다. 1980년대 유럽나라들이 해양투기를 심하게 하다가 국제적인 환경문제로 지적되어 런던협약이라는 해양투기금지 환경협약이 만들어졌고 2007년 이후 모든 나라가 해양투기를 금지하고 있다.
이명박정부가 2013년말까지 해양투기를 금지한다는 정책을 내놓을 때 산업계가 반발하면서 육상처리가 기술적으로 어려운 경우 예외적으로 허용해달라고 요구했고 이러한 요구가 시행령에 반영되었다. 그것이 2년 연장이다. 그 예외는 경제적 이유는 안되고 기술적이유여야 한다. 그런데 기술적으로 육상처리를 할 수 없는 산업폐기물은 없다. 한국보다 경제적, 기술적으로 낙후된 나라들도 모두 육상에서 처리한다. 개별기업이 폐수처리장시설을 못갖추었다면 위탁처리를 하면된다. 기술문제가 아니라 돈문제다.
Question; What are some problems caused from discharging waste materials into the ocean?
(해양 투기의 문제점)
Yeyong; After 2007, Korea is the only country doing waste ocean dumping in the world. In the 1970es and 1980es ocean dumping happened everywhere and become serious global issue. London treaty is the UN convention to deal the ocean dumping issue and all nations stopped ocean dumping anymore except Korea. Korea is the only country continuing ocean dumping using the appendix exceptions. As you know well, Korea has produced many leaders at the UN, WTO, WHO etc. More ironic thing is Korea has produced a vice chairperson at the London convention over last several years. Korean industries try to do ocean dumping rather than ocean cleaning and Korean government accepts industry’s wrong demand. Again, there are no nations make their seas waste dumping ground except Korea. Not to speak, discharging waste into to ocean contaminate the sea ecology very seriously.
2007년 이후 한국은 세계에서 유일한 해양투기 국가다. 1970년대와 1980년대 세계적으로 해양투기문제가 국제문제였고 이를 해결하기 위해 유엔의 런던협약이 만들어졌다. 모든 나라가 이 협약에 의해 해양투기를 중단했다. 그런데 한국은 예외조항을 악용하여 해양투기를 지속하는 유일한 나라다. 한국은 OECD국가로 유엔사무총장, WTO, WHO등 국제기구의 책임자를 배출하는 선진국이다. 웃기는건 해양투기금지조약을 다루는 런던협약 부의장국이 한국이다. 그런 나라에서 조금이라도 더 폐기물을 해양투기하겠다고 산업계가 아우성치고 정부는 또 그걸 받아들이고 그런다. 앞서 말했지만 세계 어느나라도 이렇게 해양을 쓰레기장으로 취급하는 나라는 없다. 해양투기는 당연히 바다를 심각하게 오염시킨다.
Question; What are the reasons for these companies to discharge waste materials into the ocean? (해양에 폐기되는 이유)
Yeyong; Money. Because of the money. Discharging the waste into the sea is 3 or 4 times cheaper than treatment the waste in land. To save the money, 800 Korean companies have made international seas around Korean peninsula waste dumping fields with millions of tons of waste every year. This is we can say a kind of moral hazard or serious lack of environmental mind of Korean industry. Another reason is the problem of government system. The administration of ocean environment management is not charged by the Environment ministry but the ministry of land and ocean which is economy motivated ministry primarily. This structural problem seems not be changed in this current PARK Keunhye government which revived the ministry of ocean and fisheries. The main and only working field of this new ministry is the ocean but this ministry doesn’t matter the ocean be waste dumping fields onlyh to save industry’s interest. It is unbelievable happening, isn’t it? We suspect why PARK Keunkhye government revived the ministry of ocean and fisheries and how come such kind of industries can be exist which cannot treat their own waste properly in land.
비용때문이다. 육상처리가 해양투기보다 3-4배 비싸기 때문에 돈을 아끼려고 바다를 쓰레기장으로 만드는 것이다. 일인당국민소득 2만달러가 넘고 4만달러를 목표로 한다는 나라에서 말이다. 기업들의 도덕적 해이, 반환경적 마인드 그리고 정부의 기업특혜가 어루어진 결과다. 정부조직에서 해양환경관리가 환경부에서 분리되어 사실상 개발부처인 국토해양부로 넘어가 형식적인 해양정책이 이루어지기 때문이다. 이 문제는 박근혜정부에서 해양수산부를 부활했지만 개선되지 않고 있다. 해양수산부는 바다생태계의 보호를 존재기반으로 해야 하는데도 기업의 이익을 위해 바다를 쓰레기장으로 만드는 정책을 지지한다. 어처구니가 없는 일이 아닌가? 자기들이 만들어내는 폐기물의 처리조차 제대로 하지 못하는 기업은 존재할 이유가 없다.
Question; Is there an alternative way or solution for the companies to deal with these huge amount of wastes? (회사들이 해양투기가 아닌 할 수 있는 방법)
Yeyong; Once again, Korea is the only country discharging industrial waste water into the sea in the world. All other nations deal the waste in land. The most desirable way is to reduce the waste production itself and the second desirable way is to recycle the waste such as compost for agricultural use. This is technically possible everywhere. Then there are another ways landfill and incineration. But this landfill and incineration ways are not desirable for causing other environmental problems. In any case Korea has techniques and facilities to deal the industrial waste.
앞서 말했지만 한국이 유일한 폐기물 해양투기국가다. 다른 나라들은 모두 육상에서 처리하는데 가장 바람직한 방법이 발생량을 줄이는 생산공정의 채택 -> 다음이 퇴비와 같은 재활용 -> 다음이 육상매립 -> 마지막으로 소각이다. 매립이나 소각은 최후의 수단이다. 다른 여러가지 환경문제를 야기하기 때문에 권장되지 않는다. 국내에 육상처리기술이 충분히 갖춰져 있다.
Question; What are the effects from the dumping? (해양 투기의 결과는?)
Yeyong; The total waste amount of ocean dumping is as much as around 130 million tons over 28 years. The environmental conditions around the dumping zones are seriously contaminated not only around the bottom of the sea but also each depth zones of the seas particularly by the toxic heavy metals like chromium. The level of chromium detected from the fishes and sea product from the sea bottom area are much higher than the safety level. That dangerously contaminated sea products come to our eating tables. This is a typical phenomenon of boomerang after environment destruction. Another problem caused by the ocean dumping is the issue of red tide. Every summer the red tide attacks the cultivating fisheries and makes serious damages. Waste ocean dumping is one of the main reason of the red tide.
지난 28년간 한국바다에 버려진 폐기물이 1억3천만톤이나 된다. 투기지역의 해저생태계가 엉망이다. 카드뮴과 같은 유해중금속의 농도가 심각하다. 주변 해역에서 잡힌 물고기와 해저생물에서 카드뮴농도가 기준치를 훨씬 초과되어 검출된다. 해마다 여름철에 발생하는 적조현상으로 양식어업이 큰 타격을 입는데 적조발생 원인중 하나가 해양투기로 인한 바다오염이다. 그리고 오염된 수산물이 우리 식탁에 오르는 문제다. 환경오염의 부메랑이라고 할 수 있다.
Question; And how long does it take for the ocean to recover from these environmental harms? Or can the ocean recover from this at all?
(바다가 원상 복귀 될 수 있는지..? 얼마나 걸리는건지..?)
Yeyong; It is a difficult question indeed. Earnestly speaking, no one knows. We believe the power of nature’s purification is enormous, but we have been doing the waste ocean dumping too much and too long at the specific places in the ocean. It is highly necessary to do the follow up environmental monitoring around the dumping zones over dozens of decades. Korea is one of the leading countries for the remote fishery industry in the world and we are proud of having 3 open seas. It must be a shameful thing to the international society for Korea to make all the 3 neighbor international open seas the terrible dumping ground by the industry waste water for many years.
Last year we successfully persuaded around 24 large companies to stop the ocean dumping from this year which quantity is around 30% of total dumping waste 2011 and 2012.
Last week media reported that around 450 companies registered to do more ocean dumping this year and the amount of industrial waste water will be over half million ton. There are some well known large companies too. We are strongly demand all the companies to withdraw this shameful application and government should change the wrong policy. Otherwise we warn to the companies and government to do strong campaign including boycott movement for the companies and criticizing Korean government at UN stage together with international groups. I like to ask listeners to this radio program to support our campaign.
알 수 없다. 그간 너무 많이 한곳에 집중적으로 버렸다. 자연정화의 힘이 대단하지만 회복하기까지 생각보다 오래 걸릴 것이라고 우려된다. 수십년간 지속적인 환경모니터링이 이루어져야 한다. 3면이 바다이고 세계적인 원양어업국가인 한국에서 바다를 쓰레기장으로 만든 일은 두고두고 국제적으로 창피스런 일이 될 것이다. 작년에 우리는 해양투기하는 대기업을 설득하여 올해부터 해양투기를 중단하도록 요구했다. 모두 24개의 대기업이 동의해주었다. 그런데 지난주 450개정도의 기업이 연간 50만톤씩 2년간 버리겠다고 신청했다고 한다. 대기업도 다수 포함되어 있다. 올상반기중으로 해양투기를 중단하도록 적극적인 환경캠페인을 펼치고자 한다. 국민들의 많은 지지 바란다.
Activists call for ocean dumping ban
Members of Korean Federation for Environmental Movement, along with Japanese environmentalists, stage a rally at Gwagnhwamun Plaza in downtown Seoul, Monday, urging the government to ban dumping wastewater into the ocean. / Korea Times photo by Kim Jae-won
By Kim Jae-won, Korea Times 2013 July 1
Environmental activists said Monday that Korea is the only country in the world which dumps industrial wastewater into the ocean, calling for the government to find ways of stopping it.
About 10 members of the Korean Federation for Environmental Movement (KFEM), along with three activists from Japan, said that the country still dumps toxic industrial wastewater in three zones in the East Sea and the West Sea ― all of them are international waters.
“Oceans are not a trash bin, but Korea has dumped 130 million tons of waste into the ocean for the last 25 years. What is more shameful is that we are the only country in the world which continues to do so,” said Choi Ye-yong, vice president of the organization, in a press conference.
According to KFEM, Korea is the only country that bans ocean dumping by law, observing London Convention and Protocol, an international agreement signed in 1972 and revised in 1996.
The Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries says that it still allows the dumping into the ocean because it is cheaper than burying it underground.
“Small companies prefer ocean dumping because it costs less than dumping into landfills,” said Yu Seon-hyeong, an official from the ministry.
Yu said that people do not need to worry too much because only wastewater and sludge are dumped into the seas. He said other types of waste are now banned as called for in the protocol.
However, environmentalists say that it is disappointing that the ministry, which is supposed to protect the ocean, is busy protecting corporate interests. They claim that the ministry is lobbied by hundreds of ocean-dumping firms.
“The Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries is lobbied by some 300 ocean-dumping firms which oppose any ban. The ministry hosted hearings on the issue with the companies only three times, excluding environmentalists and fishers,” Choi of KFEM told reporters in the news conference.
Furuya Sugio, an activist from Japan who joined the anti-ocean-dumping campaign, said it is an international issue which Korea must heed.
“It is easy to dump wastewater into oceans, but it will be difficult to recover it from pollution. I hope the Korean government will stop it as soon as possible,” said Sugio, the secretary general of Japan Occupational Safety and Health Resource Center.
Effective 2014, Dumping Trash into Ocean should be Completely Prohibited
Dumping trash into ocean brings disgrace to Korea
2013년 11월 22일 (금)
HyoJin Cha, Reporter email@example.com
While an environmental organization has been persuading individual companies to stop dumping trash into the ocean, 24 large companies showed their intention to dispose of waste materials on the land. The amount of the trash thrown away be those 24 large companies into the ocean accounts for about 30 percent of the total amount of trash. On the contrary, however, the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries is carrying forward the policy of ‘permitting domestic companies to dump trash into the ocean for a limited time’, which is causing a stir.
The Korean Federation for Environmental Movement released a statement on Nov. 14 to criticize: “Thinking that throwing away more trash into the sea may be OK, the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries accepts applications from companies for the extension of permission to dump trash into the ocean and frames the policy of ‘permitting for a limited time to discharge waste materials into the ocean’. That is a trash policy to give indulgence to anti-environmental companies which consider the ocean as a dumping ground.”
The quantity of dumping trash from more than 30 large companies – excluding middle and small companies among over 800 companies currently dumping into the ocean – accounts for 50 percent of the whole dumping volume, according to this organization. Among those large companies, 24 companies have reportedly notified that they could stop dumping trash into the ocean and dispose it on the land.
The organization said, “The Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, which was revived by the Park Gen-hye administration, is only occupied with providing administrative support to companies in dumping their waste materials into the sea, pushing aside its duty of protecting the sea. Under this circumstance, better yet, the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries should be abolished and rearranged to belong to the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy.”
In Korea, dumping industrial waste into the sea is permissible. Other countries dispose of waste water on the land by purifying or recycling, but Korean factories discharge into the sea the waste water and sludge containing toxic substances including heavy metals at a low cost under the government’s permission. That is why Korea gains dishonor of the world’s only country to dump trash into the ocean.
Korea joined in 2009 the London Protocol, which aims to ban on dumping trash into the ocean, and as of 2014, dumping into the ocean will be completely prohibited. Among 43 countries which joined the London Protocol, Korea is the only country to permit dumping into the ocean. In 2012, when ‘the zero-ocean dumping policy of land waste’ by the Ministry of Land, Transport, and Maritime Affairs has passed the Cabinet meeting, the ministry revised related laws and promised the people again to put a ban on dumping into the ocean as of 2014. However, this year, the last year of permitted dumping, the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, resurrected by President Park Geun-hye, is now pushing ahead with the policy of ‘permitting for a limited time to dump waste into the ocean’ on account of the impact on the industrial circles by stopping it.
Through the investigation into individual companies, which started this September, the sea committee of the Korean Federation for Environmental Movement found that, among 31 large and major companies that have been dumping waste into the ocean, 24 affiliated companies of 14 large business groups including Samsung, LG, Kolon, Samyang, Lotte and Daesang plan to stop dumping all waste materials into the ocean and dispose of them on the land.
Seoul Milk announced that it will dispose of waste material on the land while lowering its water content by installing a large-scale dryer, and Cheongjeongwon of Daesang Group said that it is in negotiations with a contracted disposal service company to invest billions of money in facilities for treating more than 10,000 tons of high concentration waste water. Kolon Water & Energy has invested 45 billion won in building large-scale drying facilities in Yeosu Industrial Complex, and after the completion of building, the company will dispose of waste materials coming from all factories in Yeosu industrial Complex on the land.
In addition, Dongsuh Food will recycle waste materials or make use of them as the energy of the factory boiler by burning them. Murim Paper, a paper manufacture business, plans to dispose of waste material on the land from 2014 in Jinju and Daegu factories, and its Ulsan factory is seeking the way to halve the quantity of the generated waste and dispose of the remains on the land, too.
Meanwhile, the Korean Federation for Environmental Movement plans to define SKC, Kumho Petrochemical, Hyosung, Hansol Chemical, and Paik Kwang Industrial – companies that neglect to invest on purifying facilities and sign up for extension of permission in 2014 while jumping on the Park Geun-hye administration’s policy – as anti-environmental companies and conduct a campaign against each of those companies.
This organization made cynical remarks: “There are two companies in the same line of business, and one company invests billions of money in building purifying facilities to stop dumping trash into the ocean, while the other one just relies on the government’s policy and doesn’t care about environmental destruction. In such a case, the government’s policy is a reverse discrimination against companies that make efforts for prevention of environmental pollution.”
The organization added with emphasis, “It looks like the government’s nonsense policy protects anti-environmental companies. The government should stop attempting to extend dumping permission and keep the promise of the complete ban on dumping trash into the ocean starting from 2014, as originally planned.”